Bridging the Gap Podcast

Bridging the Gap Podcast brings you the latest research in sport, performance and exercise psychology in audio format. Any research that involves strengthening the mind, team dynamics, leadership or well-being, we cover it. We go straight to the researcher and bring the information straight to you, Bridging the Gap between research and your knowledge.
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Now displaying: October, 2016
Oct 31, 2016

Study: Coaching on the Wave: An Integrative Approach to Facilitating Youth Development



Central to the ability of successfully utilizing sport as a social intervention to promote youth developmental outcomes is the role of the youth sport leader (YSL). While many YSLs care for the youth-athletes with whom they work, many YSLs do not have a purposeful intent when facilitating sport as a social intervention. One strategy developed to increase the YSL's ability to intentionally facilitate sport towards youth development is the Coaching on the Wave model, which offers a framework for YSLs to apply theory and research into their coaching practices to intentionally promote positive youth outcomes such as life-skill development.


Author: Tarkington Newman

Tarkington J. Newman (MSW, University of Michigan; MS, The Ohio State University) is a fourth year doctoral student in the College of Social Work.  He is currently serving as a Graduate Research/Teaching Associate for Dr. Anderson-Butcher in The LiFEsports Initiative.  Prior to his work as a Graduate Associate, he was awarded a Graduate Enrichment Fellowship through The Ohio State University.  Tarkington’s research interests lie within sport-based positive youth development among high-risk urban minority youth.  Specifically, his focus is on the role of the youth sport leader and their ability to facilitate and transfer life skill development.  Tarkington has co-authored several publications in peer-reviewed journals such as: Research on Social Work PracticePsychology of Sport & Exercise, and Journal of Applied Sport Psychology.  Additionally, Tarkington co-developed the experiential-based Coaching on the Wave model, which has been presented at conferences such as Experiential Education Annual International Conference and International Adventure Therapy Conference.  Tarkington has also taught a variety of undergraduate courses in both social work and sport science departments such as: Engagement & Interview Skills, Prevention and Youth Development though Sport, Recreation and PlayContemporary Issues in Sport, and Coaching the Young Athlete.  In addition to his academic work, he was trained as a school social worker, where he specialized in adventure therapy and crisis intervention.  He has also spent the last decade coaching track & field at the high school and collegiate club levels.







Oct 24, 2016

Practitioner: Sam Maniar

Sam Maniar Ph.D. is the founder of the Center for Peak Performance. He has worked with thousands of professional, Olympic, college, and high school athletes, including the Cleveland Browns, Ohio State Buckeyes, and Washington State Cougars.


Dr. Maniar uses performance psychology and his extensive experience as a foundation to help individuals, teams, companies, and groups pursue their potential. His varied background gives him a true understanding of what it takes to succeed, both in sport and the business world. He is a licensed psychologist in the state of Ohio, and his work has been featured in numerous publications, such as The New York TimesESPN.comFox NewsNCAA Times, and




Follow him @sam_maniar.



“It was more correcting myths, like they believed they needed to stay focused for three hours. Well no, you really only need to stay focused for 20 seconds at a time.”

“What would happen is, I would always work with, for whatever reason, every year there was one or two veterans on offense and defense...that would want to do everything in their power to be successful, so one of the things they would do is meet with me.”

‘What I am looking at (pre-draft analysis) is two levels of risk. Risk on the field, and off the field.”

“Part of risk on the field could be their capacity to learn, part of it might be what type of a teammate are they, how do they take feedback from coaches, are they aware of their limitations and strengths.”

Oct 17, 2016

Article: Psychological Momentum During and Across Sports Matches: Evidence for Interconnected Time Scales


This study on psychological momentum (PM) in sports provides the first experimental test of an interconnection between short-term PM (during a match) and long-term PM (across a series of matches). Twenty-two competitive athletes were striving to win a prize during a rowing-ergometer tournament, consisting of manipulated races. As hypothesized, athletes who had developed long-term positive PM after two successful races were less sensitive to a negative momentum scenario in the third race, compared with athletes who had developed long-term negative PM after two unsuccessful races. More specifically, the exerted efforts, perceptions of momentum, and self-efficacy were higher for participants who had developed long-term positive PM, and their perceptions of momentum and self-efficacy decreased less rapidly. These results illustrate a typical complex dynamical systems property, namely interconnected time scales, and provide deeper insights into the dynamical nature of PM.

Author: J.R. (Ruud) den Hartigh

Dr. Ruud Den Hartigh is currently assistant professor at the Department of Psychology, University of Groningen (Netherlands), where he is also the coordinator of the international Master’s program Talent Development & Creativity.  In April 2015, he defended his PhD thesis (awarded by the collaborating universities of Montpellier (France) and Groningen with the distinction cum laude) on the study of complex processes of human performance. In general, Ruud’s research focuses on providing an understanding of the “laws” of emergence and adaptation of psychological and performance patterns, mostly in sports. Typical examples of questions he is working on are: ‘How can we understand the complex development of talent?’, and  ‘How do periods of positive and negative psychological momentum develop?’



Checkout the new MSc. program Ruud and his colleagues have started:



Youtube video where Ruud discusses the current study:


“It’s not always the case that if you have momentum it is guaranteed success, and if you have negative momentum it is a guarantee that you will lose.”

“I think that it (momentum) does shape your feelings of confidence, your efforts that you exert during a match.”

“The way athletes respond to setbacks during a match is related to, I would even say embedded in the momentum process that has developed during the tournament.”

“The idea that athletes’ responses are actually shaped by the process, is surprisingly often omitted.”

“Examining the process can actually give you answers to the question of when and how athletes psychological states and performance actually change.”

“Do not omit the process, rather, focus on the process.”

‘If you want to understand when and how the psychological states and performance of an athlete changes, the answer probably lies in

Oct 10, 2016

Practitioner: Lauren Tashman

Lauren S. Tashman, PhD, CC-AASP is an Assistant Professor in Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology (SEPP), the Coordinator of Sport Psychology Services, and the Coordinator of the Master's SEPP program at Barry University in Miami Shores, Florida.  In addition to teaching, supervising, and providing mental performance services to athletics at Barry, she has a private practice in which she provides CC-AASP mentoring and mental performance coaching to individual performers and groups/teams. She is currently also the Mental Performance Coach for Softball Canada's Senior Women's National Team. Her educational background includes a Bachelor's in Psychology from The College of New Jersey as well as a Master's and PhD in Educational Psychology with a concentration in Sport Psychology from Florida State University.  During her PhD, she also obtained a certification in Program Evaluation, taught an undergraduate Educational Psychology course, and was a Graduate Research Assistant in the Learning System Institute's Human Performance Lab, led by Drs. K. Anders Ericsson, David Eccles, and Paul Ward. Most recently, she co-edited two books with J. Gualberto Cremades investigating global perspectives on applied practice and training/supervision titled, "Becoming a Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology Practitioner: a Global Perspective" and "Global Practices and Training in Applied Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology: a Case Study Approach."




Twitter: @DrTSportPsych

Check out Inspire Performance Consulting on Facebook




“In the process of driving better habits of thinking, I also believe that in the moment you need to just go with whatever you have.”


“In a team sense, or how you influence other people I really truly believe that you are either a positive or negative, there is no such thing as a grey area, there is no such thing as in between.”


“My approach has always been try to build really good relationships, do good work with the people that want it and then let it progress overtime.”


“In today’s world where information is everywhere and everyone’s fingertips, I want my students to be better than what someone can get in a book or online.”

Oct 3, 2016

Study: Self Talk: Review and Sport Specific Model


 Self-talk is a key component of the sport psychology canon. Although self-talk has been widely endorsed by athletes and coaches as a performance enhancement strategy, a comprehensive model of self-talk in sport that might be used to guide systematic research has yet to be developed. This purpose of this paper is to: (a) review theory and research related to self-talk in sport; and (b) present a sport-specific model that builds upon existing theory and research, and addresses key questions related to self-talk. The paper begins with a definition of self-talk, developed with consideration of the discursive nature of inner speech and dual process theories. Extant self-talk models related to self-talk in sport are reviewed and serve as a foundation for a sport-specific model of self-talk. Components of the model (i.e., self-talk, System 1, System 2, behaviour, contextual factors, personal factors) are presented, the reciprocal relationships among model components are explored, and implications of the sport-specific model of self-talk are discussed.



Judy L. Van Raalte, PhD, is a certified consultant for the Association for Applied Sport Psychology (AASP) and listed in the United States Olympic Committee Sport Psychology Registry. She has presented at conferences in 18 countries and published over 90 articles in peer-reviewed journals. Her research has been funded by the National Institutes of Mental Health, the NCAA, and the International Tennis Federation. Van Raalte served as president of the American Psychological Association's Society of Sport, Exercise & Performance Psychology (APA Division 47) and vice president of the International Society of Sport Psychology. She is a fellow of APA and AASP.

Research Interests

  • Self-talk
  • Body image
  • Professional issues in sport and exercise psychology








“If we already know everything that we know, then why would we talk to ourselves?”


“When you ask people after the fact, they tend to be pretty poor at remembering what they were thinking, or what their experiences were.”


“So people who think they are not really great, and say I’m not really great, and then are told to think ‘No your awesome’, sometimes get stuck in thinking and actually feel worse, and up performing worse.”


“You don’t have to act on every thought you have.  It just might be part of the process and normal because sport can be frustrating.”


“How much self-talk is too much?”

“So what I think is new is looking at all the relationships between these factors and then opening things up to really consider peoples own private experiences with system one self talk.”